Fulford battlefied under threat

July 2015 dig

The Fulford Tapestry

Comparing translations

Summary of published report

Visiting the site

Naming the battle
Translation issues
AngloSaxon Chronicles
Symeon of Durham
Geoffrey Gaimar
John of Worcester
William of Malmesbury
Henry of Huntingdon
Orderic Vitalis
The Life of King Edward
Comparing translations
Norse Sagas
Misinformed criticism
Song of Maldon
Saxon succession


Images of flood on the day of the battle

12 panoramas of the battle site

YouTube videos

The Fulford Tapestry

All History Guide: Your guide to history on the Internet..

Finding Fulford cover

Kindle version

" .. this unusual, and yes, excellent history book.." 

"More books like this one introducing historical study in a sympathetic was are needed.."

Now in paperback

... and into its 3rd reprint!



Comparing translations:

During the project the late Dr Richard Hall guided the landscape research and was doubtless why he put me in touch with Prof Palsson.

I used the Laing version in Finding Fulford because Penguin would not grant me free copyright.

In this particular section the Laing version is more coherent militarily but both fit Germany Beck well when all the text is considered. 

1844 translation by Samuel Laing.

1966 translation by Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Palsson

Notes by Chas Jones

King Harald now went on the land, and drew up his men. 

..he went ashore and began to draw up his army,

Neither mention the move from Riccall towards York

The one arm of this line stood at the outer edge of the river,

with one flank reaching down to the river

The term translated as arm refers to an army. Flank is a tactical location not a group which is problematic later.

the other turned up towards the land

and the other stretching inland

From the dry land beside the river one could turn to the land or stretch inland.

along a ditch; and

towards a dyke where

Looking from the river one would go towards the ditch/dyke as the flooded ings would submerge the beck until it emerged beyond the breach where we find the stone-lined ford.

there was also a morass, deep, broad, and full of water.

there was a deep and wide swamp full of water.

This would describe the Ings or Germany Beck on the morning of 20/9/1066 and the land beyond.

The earls let their army proceed slowly down along the river, with all their troops in line. 

The English Earls brought their army slowly down along the river in close formation.

The Orkney saga refers to Germany Beck as the Upper Ouse.‘They met at that river which is the upper Ouse’ The ‘close formation/troops in line’ is ashieldwall.

The king's banner was next to the river, where the line was thickest.

King Harald’s standard was near the river, where his forces were thickest,

The river Ouse bank is not visible from Germany Beck. The landscape is relevant to what happens next.

It was thinnest at the ditch, where also the weakest of the men were.

but the thinnest and least reliable part of the line was at the dyke.

So the Norse had a thin shieldwall along a ditch or at a dyke. This must have been facing the English and not off to the flank as M/P suggest.

When the earls advanced downwards along the ditch, the arm of the Northmen's line which was at the ditch gave way;

The earls now advanced down the line of the dyke, and the Norwegian flank there gave way;

Down and downwards describe descending in this landscape. The weak army or flank gave way when the English advance at the ditch or dyke;

and the Englishmen followed, thinking the Northmen would fly.  The banner of Earl Morukare advanced then bravely.

The English went after them, thinking that the Norwegians would flee. Earl Morcar’s banner was in the van.

It looked like a rout because Mocar was unaware of the army by the river. This was a tactic reportedly used by Harald as a Byzantine mercenary.

In the following stanza it has



The English array had come to the ditch against him..

 ..the English flank was advancing down the dyke..

Flanks don’t advance, so I favour the terms army or array used by Laing. But M/P use of ‘down’might represents descent into the steep sided, wide ditch.



Related sites Facebook  Twitter (@ helpsavefulford)        Visiting Fulford        Map York

There is a site devoted to saving the battlesite: The site has the story of the process that has allowed the site to be designated an access road to a Green Belt, floodplain housing estate.

And another website for the Fulford Tapestry that tells the story of the September 1066: This tells the story embroidered into the panels.

The author of the content is Chas Jones - fulfordthing@gmail.com  last updated June 2015

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